What Is Link Building and Why Is It Essential for SEO?

Amanda Milligan
By Amanda Milligan
February 23, 2021

Out of context, it sounds like a children's toy or some kind of complicated arts and crafts project. But link building is actually a pivotal piece of the content marketing puzzle. Without it, a lot of the marketing effort you're putting in might not be reaching its full potential. Considering how much time, effort, and money it takes to make and promote great content, it's a scary thought.

If you've found yourself asking, "But seriously, what is link building?" then we've got you covered. This post will break down what it is, why you need to do it, how you can do it, and what lies ahead for this search engine optimization practice.

What is Link Building?

Like all boring graduation speeches, we’ll start with a quote:

“For people to discover your website, you need to build pathways and big, flashing signs that lead them there. In digital marketing terms, this means you need links, links and more links.”

— Luisito Batongbakal, MonitorBacklinks.com

Let's deconstruct that.

As you know, links connect everything online. Odds are, you got to this blog post because you clicked on a link in Google or from another site. Very rarely do we type in exact URLs to arrive at pages. Links help us navigate the web, and that's exactly why your site needs to establish a presence on that map.

When we talk about links in the context of link building, we're referring to high-quality links that point to your site. For example, if your company has a Wikipedia page that links to your company's homepage, that's a link in this context, and that's the type of link you want to "build." 

For example, this Harvard Business Review article mentions a study we did, and it includes a link to the original research in the article.

Now, when people are reading, they can click on the anchor text and be navigate to the source. That means more people end up on our site, which is a great thing and illustrates why valuable links are essential for directing people to where they want to go online. Referral traffic isn't just important for getting people to your site. A link from a highly trustworthy site like Harvard Business Review essentially acts as a testimonial, telling the reader they trust your site enough to recommend it. 

"Link building" is the endeavor to get more of these types of high-quality links.

And there's another critical reason why links that point to your site — or "backlinks" — are important.

Why Do I Need to Build Links?

So, yes, you want your site to be found by people browsing the web. But that can't be the only reason there's so much contention around link building, right?

Links do more than link pages together across a website. They're also a very, very important indication of authority.

Think of it this way.

If someone asks you about hairdressers in your town, and you hand them your hairdresser's card, you're linking them to that salon. But you're also suggesting that you recommend that hairdresser. You're not just giving them a random name -- you're referring them to someone you trust.

Similarly, if someone is writing an article or building out a page of their site, they're not going to link to just anyone in their content. They're going to link to sites they trust. If given a choice, would you link to a stranger's Tumblr page or a .edu site? A shady-looking page with typos, or a well-thought-out Medium article? The choices people make when linking create an inherent referral system online, and these organic recommendations help us know who to trust.

Google knows this, too, and to help quality sites rank highly in Google search results, they use links to determine which sites can be trusted.

Now, it's important to know that not all sites are created equal. If two people give you recommendations for the hairdresser, and one of those people has a gorgeous cut and color while the other is rocking a rattail, you'll probably go with the former's suggestion.

Google does that too -- they look to see who is doing the recommending to decide how much trust they want to give the linked-to site. For example, if I link to your site from my personal blog, that might count for a little bit of authority, but if The New York Times links to your site, um, that depends for a lot more

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So, the true essence of link building is not just trying to get as many links to your site as possible but also trying to get the most authoritative links to your site. Building a diverse backlink profile should be the end goal. It's just not the number of links. The quality and diversity of the sites are the metrics that matter. 

With a diverse backlink portfolio, not only do you have pathways for people to take to get to your site, but you also have evidence that what you're saying is trustworthy, and you're improving your search engine rankings.

How Are Links Built?

There are many ways to build links; some of them are ethical, and others are, well, sketchy. The digital marketing world has decided to bucket these tactics by using an old Western trope (because why not?).

Black Hat SEO Link Building Tactics

You know how we said Google uses links to determine authority? Well, back in the day, they couldn't tell the difference between links. They were all created equal. And that, my friend, was a frightening time — a wasteland of spammy, nonsensical blog comments and webpages that just featured hundreds of links and nothing else.

People knew that any link meant something, so they'd throw links everywhere, even when it made no sense. Early SEOs could easily game the system this way, and anyone with this knowledge can make their pages rank without doing very much work or having valuable content. This is "black hat" link building — the workaround version that's not exactly honest. 

Thankfully, search engine algorithms are much more sophisticated now, and thus search results have improved dramatically, which is a huge win for Internet users. Some people still dabble in black hat or "gray hat" link building, but as time goes on, these types of links will continue to be penalized. It's just not worth risking your reputation!

White Hat SEO Link Building Tactics

Instead, we recommend "white hat" link building. This type of link building depends on hard work. You have to create valuable content that people want to link to! (Oh, the humanity!) Content creation is key here. That involves considering your target audience and what they need or want to know, and then you have to take the time to create that content.

If you can't tell what shade of hat you're dealing with, when you get a link, as yourself: Did I earn this? You should always feel like your content deserves the link you got. 

For example, our team allocates at least a month to execute outreach for each content campaign. The end product results from many hours of project managers, designers, writers, data analysts, and sometimes programmers or other specialists contributing their expertise. We launch surveys, distill datasets, and create elaborate (but easy to understand) data visualizations and infographics to make stories come to life because we know that's what makes for good content. This is what you have to do to rank higher in the SERPs — make stuff you're proud of.

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Then, when our digital PR specialists set out to pitch the content we create to publishers, they feel confident. Outreach is easier. They can write genuine pitch emails that really speak to the writer they're reaching out to and offer content the writer actually wants. 

This is the type of link building that will last. It's based on an authentic desire to engage with audiences and contribute to conversations in a meaningful way. And who can ever fault that? These types of interactions make for the building blocks of great online dialogue and exchange. Journalists, writers, and editors see this content and think, "this is newsworthy" (and therefore linkworthy)! 

Note: If our digital PR specialists get a content campaign published on a top-tier site and the journalist doesn't link back to that page, we then execute link reclamation.

What Is the Future of Link Building?

The way Google analyzes links will continue to become more sophisticated and favor high-quality, natural linking. 

There will also continue to be techniques that work for some, dramatically increasing in popularity across the board, become spammy and thus less effective, and hopefully level out back to a normal state.

Guest blogging is a great example. People contributed blog content (or "guest posts") to other sites and got links in their author profiles. Marketers realized how effective that tactic was for link building, so nearly everyone on Earth started mass sending out pitch emails asking to put content on someone else's blog. The quality of these requests plummeted, and then people began to look down on guest posting. Now, thankfully, it's back to an average level (though not without a share of spammy people), and quality stuff breaks through the noise. (If you want to read up more on this topic, this SEMrush post covers the misunderstanding nicely.)

Something similar is happening with media coverage. A lot of what we do at Fractl involves helping brands create compelling, emotional, data-driven content relevant to their missions. Then we pitch it to publishers whose audiences would find it valuable and exciting. (Hint: You can build really high-authority links this way!)

Then, all marketers caught on. Some started pitching crap content to great writers. The writers started getting sick of seeing content that wasn't at all relevant to them or templated emails that were clearly blasted to hundreds of publications. So, writers, bloggers, and editors started paying less attention to these pitches or deleting the emails outright. And, just like guest posting, the work got much harder for the rest of us trying to do our due diligence and create great, linkable content worthy of sharing on social media. email-subject-line-link-building-image-2

If you don't have an incredibly engaging and excellent subject line, pitch email, relevance to their audience, and content package, you don't stand a chance of breaking through the deluge of garbage these writers deal with.

This will be the cycle no matter what the tactic, but something will always remain the same: Quality will beat the trend. Do good, honest work, and it'll be rewarded. The people slacking their way through these link building strategies will eventually (hopefully) discover it doesn't work for them anymore and bail. Your useful content and communication will find its way through. It just won't always be easy.

If another strategy turns out to be successful, the same circle of life may occur. Make sure to leave the gate with high-quality content, and you'll do well.

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